Art walk at Alskeral Avenue

I booked to go on an art walk round Dubai’s art cluster in Al Quoz called Alskeral Avenue.

I decided I was not going to research what was being exhibited but to go with a fresh pair of eyes, take pictures of what I liked and then come home and research the artist.

Al Quoz is made up of three areas numbered 1,2 and 3 predominately an industrial area Alskeral Avenue is situated on 8th street in area Al Quoz 2. The whole art area is made up of warehouses which have been split up to make galleries and cafes. It reminds me of the mini industrial units you see on industrial estates back in the U.K.  There where a few outdoor art installations in open spaces in between warehouses. Each warehouse was labelled with numbers but still lots of us booked on the walk got lost trying to find the initial start up point. This ‘broke the ice’ between the group as we noticed each other asking the security guard the same question. “where is warehouse 90?”

Everyone walked from gallery to gallery listening to the tour guide. I didn’t catch her name but it was obvious she was French and an expert in Art History.

First stop was Warehouse 45 which is occupied by Jean-Paul Najar Foundation.

The exhibition on show was Christian Bonnefoi: Double Take, November 13,2016-February28,2017. Curated by Sylvie Turpin.


This is a non-profit private museum which gathers European and American abstract art from the 1960's through to today.
This is a non-profit private museum which gathers European and American abstract art from the 1960’s through to today.

I looked at all the mixed media pictures. There was mixed paper with tissue and other delicate materials to make a collages. These pictures reminded me of the fashion in the 80’s abstract I know, but I couldn’t shake the sense of MFI furniture with red and yellow handles and I half expected to see a person in a blue shell suit as I wondered round the gallery. It was bizarre how my mind worked when I was staring into the chaotic pencil marks on the paper. I found one image that had a different vibe I took a photo using my phone so I could note the contrast between the majority of the artworks and this one piece. This piece to me was the end of the series of work. Unfortunately it got deleted off my phone so I am going to go back before the exhibition finishes to get another image.


Carbon 12 was the next gallery. The gallery space was all white and deceptively small, the exhibition that was on was

Olaf Breuning : The Good Old Revolution, 13th November 2016-10 January 2017

Olaf Breuning born 1970 in Switzerland is New- York Based and he is a multi-disciplinary Artist. The exhibition consisted of several black and white penned drawings framed and hung on the walls while the twelve mini sculptures were displayed on stands around the gallery.

I picked up the Press Release and deciphered the following

‘observations of the human experience with absurdist drawings serving as the starting point alongside a new series of miniature ceramic sculpture’s’ 

His monochromatic line drawings are delightfully cheeky in layers of context, reference and interpretation with which he engages.

He addresses cultural and political issues and infuses his art with the realness of a world dominated by media, pop-culture and globalization…

Constituting of humorous art without ridiculing art.

Carbon 12 Press Release – Katrina Kufer October 2016

This guy’s work did make me smirk as I was walking round. It reminded me of the doodles you draw when your stuck in a boring meeting. I really wanted to buy number 21. We are so Violent  for my Kitchen. So my kids can see it everyday and ask questions about it. His artwork raises questions and I liked the simplicity of them.


Carbon 12
Olaf Breuning The Good Old Revolution–7972.html


Ayyam Gallery in contrast to Carbon 12 was a very large gallery and in two locations in Askeral Avenue. One part for was used just for large art installations the other for walled displays.

Mouteea Murad : Thresholds 13 November 2016-7 January 2017, curated by Murtaza Vali

Again deciphering that press releases I pieced the following together

Mouteea is a Sharjah based painter

The artists experiments with the use of Mathematics and geometric abstractions, an approach to non-objective art that he developed over the course of a decade.

He has returned to Dubai with large scale works that use the Fibonacci number sequence as a starting point for his large scale compositions.

Murad applies the Fibonacci series to grid- like patterns that partially conceal the interactions of polygons and lines, thus creating an illusion of depth.

The mural Rainbow – rain and light and love (2016), the artist uses uniform bands that seem to decrease in width towards the centre of the composition. The painting is divided into seven distinct planes that are organized according to similar hues and contain intersecting lines. Here colour relativity also plays a central role in creating a vast space.

I asked the lady behind the desk in the gallery what the price was of the mural, 90,000 aeds. It took a month to make. I must say it was quite impressive and I stood and looked at it from afar and then up close. I examined the corners and how fine the divisions were between each colour. I love hearing and seeing blends of science and art. This mural could easily be placed in a boardroom or a large hotel reception area. The effect worked best from afar and if you didn’t know that the artist had used the Fibonacci series as a starting reference you could easily say a child could do that with masking tape, a ruler and paint but you would be wrong.


Second location for the Ayyam Gallery

Khaled Jarrar : Castles built from Sand will Fall 13 November 2016- 7 January 2017

Castles built from sand will Fall provides a condensed over view of Jarrar’s focus on this issue with a range of work in different media. Featuring installation, photography, video, sculpture and art objects, the exhibitionoffers a look into the various strands of his creative practice.

We were told before we went in the gallery about the artist Khaled Jarrar. He was born in Jenin in 1976 and lives and works in Ramallah, Palestine.

His art installations and documentary work has won him several awards and accolades (see link) He broaches difficult subjects where he asks the viewer to rethink the intersections of life, politics and visual culture.

I don’t know why but I couldn’t help but hearing Don Mclean lyrics from the song ‘Castles in the air’ which was totally inappropriate for the exhibition content.

Past the through the wall was a video installation, Journey 110 documents a hidden 110 metre passageway beneath the massive wall in the West bank.

I think the artist wanted to show the absurdity of the situation when partitions and segregation are involved. Highlighting the depravity of the situation in Palestine


Castles built from sand will fall


Student pop up exhibition from Sheik Zayed University

This exhibition was interesting. The student  Asma Khoory had done portraits of construction workers and taken audio samples as well as the GPS coordinates of the construction sites the workers worked in Dubai. The audio stories were made for the benefit of the workers families back in their respective countries.

I noticed that all the workers where from the same company but different sites. They were also at different levels of management within the company. Now I know, because I have tried that you are not allowed to photograph workers and display the images without permission from their sponsor. I hope Asma Khoory got permission.

Anyway the images reminded me straight away of the Open for Business Exhibition. I seen it in July 2014 at the National Railway Museum, York UK. Particularly the Bruce Gilden images. ( see link )


Overall Conclusion

The walk was well organized and information was readily available.  It was ok, I wasn’t enthused by the area and some galleries weren’t open. I actually feel you can’t enclose art to just one area in a city. It should be seen everywhere. I will definitely book another art walk as the experience overall was interesting.





Xposure International Photography Festival, Sharjah. U.A.E

Xposure International photography Festival is the official photography educational and imaging platform that combines a broad range of photography events including ; Exhibitions, workshops, seminars, presentations, competitions, photo walks and a photography product trade show.

This was the first time I have attended this exhibition and I would definitely go again next year.  Sharjah is one of the Emirates outside of Dubai. It definitely has more culture than Dubai.  His Highness Shiekh Dr.Sultan bin Muhammad Al Qasimi was at the Festival as he advocates museums and art in all areas which is very exciting to me to find an area of the U.A.E which has more opportunities creatively.

Here are the list of seminars I attended.



David Yarrow was the first speaker of the day, He opened with a slide show of some of his expeditions and the music playing was ‘Walk of Life’ by Dire straits. I thought this was amusing and quite funny as he is a wild life photographer, as I was sat there I thought that I was glad he didn’t play Elton John’s ‘Circle of Life’.

David Yarrow has built an unrivalled reputation for capturing the beauty of the planets landscapes and cultures and endangered animals. I have no interest in becoming a wildlife photographer but I was interested in the life experience David Yarrow talked about. He quoted a lot of Ansel Adams because this seminar was titled ‘ The lens looks both ways’. A famous Ansel quote, he came out with more

Photography is not only about the camera….’

‘Photography is about your heart, eyes, brain and your soul…’

‘Photography reflects your journey in life’

He has a deep appreciation of Cinematography and a knowledge of cult films which impressed me. He suggested that photographers get inspiration from everything as well as from other photographers pictures and transgress them.

‘Be different ‘was the piece of advice he gave all of us.

We watched a five minute video of an expedition to see Polar bears in Greenland 2016. The images where amazing and beautifully composed in such harsh conditions. David Yarrow is a photographer that sacrifices comfort for context.

He recommended working hard on research with four days researching coupled with one day shooting.  He goes by the philosophy ‘Less is more’ when it comes to shooting images. He picked three of his images and described the story behind each one of them, the amount of time and effort which was put into each shot. Overall this was a very good start to my visit to the festival since I had gotten lost into the depths of Sharjah trying to find the Expo location this made it worthwhile.



David Yarrow

The Digital Tour seminar this was held by the World Press photo organization. They went through the finalists for 2016 and showed some distressing images the speaker explained the context and narrative behind each photo. I must say I enjoyed this seminar because I have been reading up on Context since the essay ‘Photography and Context’ by Terry Barrett was quoted in the course work so I understood the terminology and the concepts behind the narratives.

I stayed for the ‘Optimising Colour’ by Niels Knudsen which was a Capture One demo, this was all about photo processing software. The guy was very informative but following the world photo press seminar was a hard act to follow. Niels V. Knudsen is Phase One’s Image Quality Professor. He is responsible for breakthrough advancements in image quality both in Phase One’s medium format camera systems and in its digital imaging software. Niels is a digital pioneer whose debut in the digital photography business was more than 20 years ago specialising in image processing and digital camera technology. This presentation was just 30 mins a taster for the more in depth afternoon session, covering practical concepts in Raw workflow for todays Photographer, including ICC Color Management, Corrective Tools & Processing Via Recipes.


I managed to grab some lunch before turning up to the Street photography panel discussion. I missed the first 5 minutes because they started earlier than the advertised time. I  missed the introduction so I didn’t know who was on the panel.


I started off taking notes but then I stopped as I was enjoying listening to they stories about how they started, what they liked shooting and where was their favourite place in the world. I recognized the panelists as Stephen Wilkes and the other as Muhammed Muheisen and Im ashamed to say I didn’t get the other guys name until the very end when I realized it was Vineet Vohra.

I really enjoyed this panel discussion mainly because it was authentic. You could hear the respect Stephen Wilkes had for Muhammed Muhesien. Vineet Vohra was very passionate and philosophical about his images and the practice of photography .

Stephen Wilkes is a legend among photographers and I was so excited hearing him tell stories. He explained where the inspiration came from for his ‘Day and night ‘series and he told a story about having lunch with Gary Winnogrand which showed how Winnogrand always had a photographers eye even when eating.

Muhammed Muhesien had an instant calmness about him, he spoke softly and full of confidence which made me instantly like him. I can’t describe how laid back this guy was it was brilliant to see and feel. He admitted to seeing unimaginable things in war zones due to him being a photojournalist, so being on a panel discussion was probably a coffee break. His images of children in war zones are very striking and haunting. If you get a chance to see his work, go and see it.

Ethics were discussed mainly about whether permission should be taken before shooting the street, Muhammed and Stephen said they ‘read the situation’ as to whether to get permission or not but Vineet said he never asks for permission. If he is seen with a camera then people know he will be taking pictures.

The piece of advice that they each dished out for people beginning to learn photography

Muhammed said’ Invest time in your subject ‘ Practice

Stephen said ‘ work , put yourself out there and feel the fear, let the fear drive you ‘

Vineet said ‘ Be yourself, Identify yourself and the emotions that strike you’

The floor was opened for questions, and it really annoyed me that people were asking the same question that had already been asked which meant the panel were repeating themselves. So I didn’t really get anything out of the question session apart from the knowledge that next time I will ask a question to get the information I want.

When the discussion had finished I took time out to walk round the galleries, that is another post.

Vineet Vohra


Stephen Wilkes

Muhammed Muheisen



Street art and Graffiti

Living in the UAE I rarely get to see graffiti and street art, so wandering round Melbourne was quite refreshing. Here are some images of the street art and graffiti from Melbourne and Bondi Beach. My favourite image from Melbourne is the black and white Buddha’s head.


Bondi street art

These images where taken along the boardwalk at Bondi beach, NSW Sydney. My favourite is Bondi madness, I’ve had to crop some of the images due to license plates being visible.



Field of Light exhibition

I am on holiday but I’m trying to visit galleries and keep up with my photography.

I was fortunate enough to visit Bruce Munro’s,  ‘Field of Lights” at Uluru, Northern Territories.Australia.


Bruce Munro is a British artist best known for producing large immersive light-based installations. Born in London in 1959, he lived in Australia from 1984 for 8years, he first visited Uluru with his wife in 1992 and that’s when the idea was first conceived.

The exhibition is the largest iteration of Field of light to date comprising of 50,000 stems, covering an area of over 49,000 square metres. The artwork is made up of 300,000 individual components.

Bruce Munro’s own words

” The Field of Light at Uluru represents the convergence of the land and culture and my own re-learning. This iteration is inspired by culture in its structure and form’ graphic descriptions of all the thoughts and my own journey. The concept of time is important as Uluru is inextricably linked to a significant past, present and future. I have composed this iteration so that the viewer’s experience is from a series of random pathways through the installation, each and any pathway representing traversal through time: my past, our present, Uluru’s timeless future.

Each iteration of Field of Light has led to response and reaction. I have learnt that the work has allowed the viewer to lose themselves within it, that it has inspired, led to love, healed sadness and that it has made people think. Of course I had not imagined nor planned for such responses but it speakers of the feeling of ‘Forever and always’ truth that ephemeral experience sometimes creates, a sense connection and shared experience. All of us want to connect with the sense of being part of something larger than our single lives. This connection is no more important anywhere than at Uluru, an area sculptured by landscape and culture and shared memory”

My own words

I chose to do the sunrise visit to the exhibition because I knew there would be less people about than at a sunset, it made sense. All visitors were encouraged to take photos of the installation but tripods were not allowed, luckily my gorilla pod was already attached to my camera otherwise I would not of been able to get any clear pictures.

The experience was pretty special, I’m a big fan of visual stimuli. The area was so peaceful, the pathways were many so you could walk amongst the stems. I had my iPhone as well which seemed to cope with the low light scenario just as well as my camera. My new camera which I am still getting to grips with.








Gulf Photo Plus – PhotoFriday

Well its been a while and I’ve been busy with life. I have been relying more on my written learning log than typing up my notes straight away and now I’m landed with lots of work to do !

Dubai holds a photography festival every year in March. March is the ‘Art’ month in Dubai so to speak.  I purchased tickets for PhotoFriday at the Dubai Conference centre in Knowledge village. PhotoFriday is organized by GPP and is a day filled with seminars, talks and panel discussions by some of the worlds top photographers. Then the following week is full of workshops and events. It is very well organized. I have just posted my thoughts for a more in depth view please visit the photographers individual websites

Ed Kashi, his seminar was titled ‘ A Life in Candid Intimacy’

My first seminar was Ed Kashi’s A life in Candid Intimacy’. I was really looking forward to this because I enjoy images with a story to tell. Ed Kashi does long form social documentary, he has branched out from photography into film and showed several 10 minute films about social causes from Children in Syria to Climate change in America.

At the Q&A section I asked him who influenced him throughout his career. His said at this point he admires other photographers but no one influences him at the moment. In the past when he was learning, he was influenced by several great photographers, he went to list them all but I only managed to write a few of the names down.  Henri Cartier-Breeson was mentioned and I had noticed earlier in his presentation there was an image which was a replication of Henri Cartier-Breeson man stepping over a puddle but Ed’s image a man was jumping over a fire in Northern Ireland during a street riot. I was impressed with myself for spotting that. The main point I learnt from this seminar is get excited about what you are photographing and then it will just come easily to you because you are eager to seek it out.

David Hobby seminar  ‘The Trip Comes First: How to balance Travel with Photography’

David Hobby was next.  I chose his seminar because I love to travel and go new places. His seminar mainly focused on ‘how not to look like a jerk,by carrying around lots of camera gear’. How to manage with less gear and how to have a family holiday and get to take photos as well. This guy was funny and very knowledgeable. He understood about family life and how it is a constant balancing act trying to fit photography round the kids and spouse. He had some brilliant tips and funny stories which made the time go quickly. I managed to take 3 pages of notes and do some sketches. The main point I learnt from David Hobby was ‘prepare beforehand and take as little as possible’. David uses a Fuji, I have been thinking about buying a Fuji x100S. Hopefully by the summer I can afford one, the more he spoke about his camera the more I could see that my DSLR is too bulky for travel photography.


Panel Discussion: Straight Talk: Evaluating the Middle East Photography Scene.

My Final seminar of the day was a Panel Discussion. Straight Talk- Evaluating the Middle Eastern Photography Scene.

This discussion was popular because the Secretary General of Hipa was one of the Panelists. Everyone was introduced and the first thing to be discussed was a scathing review from The Telegraph about an Arab art exhibition. Everyone was very polite and disagreed with the Telegraph. Then Copyright laws were mentioned as apparently there is a big problem with companies stealing images in the GCC region. Education and Funding was discussed, as well as photographers day rates. Regulation of photography clubs, courses and photographers was suggested to stop people being financially ripped off and that was dismissed.  ‘Restricted expression’ was mentioned and the panel suggested it was cultural and that a photographer needs to respect the culture of the region. On the back of that question I asked if they thought that photography was allowed to push the boundaries in Art like in the West.  I was just told ‘Yes’ then they went on about how much money is spent on art projects in the Middle East. They missed my point I didn’t push it.

Since I have been researching photographers, artists and art critics I can see what is lacking here and I do find it frustrating. I came away from this discussion wanting to go home to England for the ‘Freedom of expression’, resources that are free and widely available to everyone and public libraries with a good selection of books. The panel stated that things will change but they will take time. I can only hope that they will.






GPP ‘Everyday Middle East’ Exhibition

I finally made it, to see this photography exhibition just this week.

I always feel a bit insecure when visiting the GPP gallery like ‘Garth’ from Wayne’s World ‘ were not worthy, were not worthy!’. It can be a bit pretentious and fake. Well it is Dubai and people here generally act like they know more than what they do.  But I really wanted to see these images on a wall so I sucked up my insecurities and went to GPP in Al Quoz.

Gulf Photo Plus in collaboration with Everyday Middle East  presented a group exibihition  featuring the work of photographers who are trying to redefine the visual representation of the MENA region through social media.

Everyday Middle East is an Instagram feed featuring the mobile phone images of 25 photographers working in the Middle East and North Africa. It was founded in March 2014 and has since accumulated 50,000 followers on instagram.  It runs from January 12th – February 26th 2015 at GPP HQ in Al Quoz.

I picked two images which stood out for me, I had to quickly take an picture of them using my  iphone. The first was ‘ Morocco’ by Mohamed Somji ( top picture on the image below). The image is primarily of two ladies in dress, crossing the road. It reminded me of the Trent Parke images that my Tutor has told me to research. Dreamlike, surreal with use of shadows and light. I have not been to Morocco but its definitely on my list of places to visit.



Another image caught my eye, because it displayed such a contrast between black and white. ‘Iran’ by Farid Teymari ( top picture on the image below) is very simple but effective. The image consists of a pattern of ladies heads who are wearing their black abayas, the contrast is someone wearing white in a sea of black heads. There are no faces, giving an abstract quality, so your eye has to move around the image to distinguish between the shapes. The lady( I am presuming it’s a lady because it is very unlikely its a man amongst all those women considering Iran’s policy with respect to women’s rights)  wearing white creates a point of attention it is off-centre and on the left , the image is pleasing to read.

Another favourite simple for the contrast. Iran by Farid Teymari

Another favourite simply for the contrast. Iran by Farid Teymari Was I inspired by the images I seen?

Yes and No, I think its all about the selection process. Some of the images I have seen here in the Middle East everyday on FB and Instagram, mundane things and some were unusual . If the object of the exhibition was to show the beauty in the mundane objects and happenings it was a good mix. But I just can’t get away from the reputation of GPP, so part of me was expecting every single image to be awe inspiring.

Here is the link to the gallery and explanation of Everyday Middle East projects



First learning log book complete.

I have to say I am not good at expressing my thoughts and opinions, so completing my first ever learning log was a journey.  The first pages were ranting and over explaining, scientifically documenting camera settings and exact locations. Research notes were brief and my noted opinions briefer.

I was not using this provided book for its true intention I thought. Purchasing ‘Photographers’ Sketchbooks’ and reading it cover to cover gave me much needed inspiration to show what was going on in my head, which helped to slow down my thoughts and my ideas. I found my old polaroid camera and started using it to try and introduce a different medium. After researching Ansel Adams I am trying to become more organized with visualization and sketching my ideas. Towards the end of the book I can see that the pages become less writing and more visual. There are more thoughts and ideas highlighted and less ‘ranting’s of a mad woman’.

My ideas which sometimes come too fast at times are highlighted  in ‘cloud shapes’ which I use to represent a thought , then I attach the relevant sketches. I’m using coloured pens to reference certain subjects, this makes it easier for me to find relevant things as my writing can be appalling sometimes when I’m in a rush.

During my research on Gianluca Cosci I discovered a post on his Contextual Studies blog with regards to ‘Critical essay writing’ and ‘Harvard referencing’. I found this very useful and informative and refer to it when ‘I’m losing my way forward’.

I’ve only scanned in a couple of pages just as verification that I am doing the work and writing it up. This book will be posted with my prints from my assignments to my tutor. Where he can attempt to read my writing.

Exhibition – Roots

The Courtyard is a collection of galleries and small boutique shops in AlQuoz which is the main Art District In Dubai. Occasionally they have photographic exhibitions on there.  Last week I went to see the exhibition ‘Roots’.

Roots was a two person show of two-dimensional and three-dimensional works in Total Arts at the Courtyard. Al Quoz

Shaqayeq Arabi whose three dimensional installations are about being uprooted from mother earth.

Fereydoun Ave’s works are two-dimensional mix media on paper and canvas about the concentration of energy in the winter roots.

These are two Iranian artists who have been uprooted from their homeland and have had to lay down roots elsewhere in the world.

See the links below for the images.

I fully understand the concept of the exhibition as I don’t have ‘roots’ here in Dubai. Its a flaw in society because of ‘Globalisation’ that people are less inclined to invest time and effort in getting to know a place and its people if they know their are not going to be spending a lot of time there.

The two dimensional drawings and water colours of root vegetables by  Fereydoun were very skilled and precise.  I have put extra details in my written learning log.


Featured photo in the Gallery of Gulf Photo Plus

I uploaded some of my photos onto gulf photo plus gallery which I do now and again. One got picked as a featured photo. Quite pleased with it.

Camera: SONY | Camera Model: DSLR-A230 | Focal Length: 200mm | Shutter Speed: 1/1250 | Aperture: f/5.6 | ISO: 125

This is an archived photo that I took with my old camera. It was an early Friday morning and I was watching the camel training and racing. Converting it to black and white was the best option as the camel jackets which were too bright, distracting away from the rider’s face.

see the link below for the gallery



Part 2 Imaginative spaces


‘The categories of the Camera …..the categories of time and space’.  ( Vilem Flusser)

In Part 2 we are looking at lens controls and the depiction of space through focal length and aperture.

In Part 3 we are looking at shutter speed and how it is responsible for the unique way in which the camera divides one moment from the next, presenting a particular section of time in a photograph.

We are now asked to set the camera to Aperture Priority mode.  This means we can alter the Aperture settings and the camera will automatically adjust the Shutter settings accordingly so that the correct exposure will be achieved.

 A very brief history of the Camera

Camera Obscura

The camera obscura was an optical device, mainly used in drawings, but later it became one of the “ancestral threads leading to the invention of photography”. At first, it was just a box with a hole in one of it’s sides. This allowed for light to pass through the hole and strike a specific part of the back wall. The projection created an exact copy with a correct proportion, which an artist could just copy the image.


Louis-Jacques-Mandes Daguerre. View of the Boulevard du Temple.Paris. Daguerreotype

Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre designed the first commercially manufactured camera. It was named the Daguerreotype. It involved the coating of copper plates by mercury vapor. “The resultant plate was sensitized and exposed to produce a mirror like exact reproduction of the scene, usually a portrait.” It produced a single image, but it’s only problem was it was not reproducible. It required exposure times of 20-30 minutes.


Was an early photographic technique invented by William Fox Talbot in the 1830s. In this technique, a sheet of paper coated with silver chloride was exposed to light in a camera obsucura.  Those areas hit by light became dark in tone, yielding a negative image. The revolutionary aspect of the process lay in Talbot’s discovery of a chemical, gallic acid that could be used to develop the image on the paper,. This accelerated the silver chloride’s chemical reaction to the light it had been exposed to. The developing process permitted much shorter exposure times instead of hours.

Film Cameras

During 1888, Kodak released a camera that was simple to use. It was a wood and leather box that included a 100-explosure roll of film. In order to develop it, the customers would send the camera back to Kodak for processing. • In 1925, Leica invented many different features that are still standard. “Controls and a viewfinder were on top. The lens were focused by turning it, and it could collapse into the camera body for portability.


During 1948, Polaroid invented the instant film cameras. It became famous for it’s self-developing film. The earliest Polaroids used instant roll film, but it was discontinued. I went to photoworld exhibition in the World Trade centre and the polaroid is coming back as an iphone attachment.

During 1959, Nikon released the first widely used 35mm SLR camera. It contained interchangeable lenses and a reflex mirror that enabled the viewer to see the image coming through the lens.

Single-use Disposable Cameras


Kodak and Fujifilm invented the disposable in the mid-1980’s..Just like it’s name suggests, disposable cameras are only meant to be used once. It is a simple camera that already has a roll of film installed into it. Some have different functions such as focus free lenses, flash units, and or water proof. The cameras uses a 135 film and some models can be recycled and re-sold once the film cartridge has been removed.

Digital Cameras

In 1995, Kodak introduced the revolutionary digital camera to the general consumers. It changed picture-capturing forever since it captured an image electronically, without film.  The image can be viewed on a small LCD screen, and than discarded or saved for printing. The cameras are rated by mega pixels. There are three types of digital cameras such as standard digital cameras, prosumer (professional-consumer) cameras, and digital single-lens reflex cameras.

Genius of photography by Gerry Badger.