‘The categories of the Camera …..the categories of time and space’. ( Vilem Flusser)
In Part 2 we are looking at lens controls and the depiction of space through focal length and aperture.
In Part 3 we are looking at shutter speed and how it is responsible for the unique way in which the camera divides one moment from the next, presenting a particular section of time in a photograph.
We are now asked to set the camera to Aperture Priority mode. This means we can alter the Aperture settings and the camera will automatically adjust the Shutter settings accordingly so that the correct exposure will be achieved.
A very brief history of the Camera
The camera obscura was an optical device, mainly used in drawings, but later it became one of the “ancestral threads leading to the invention of photography”. At first, it was just a box with a hole in one of it’s sides. This allowed for light to pass through the hole and strike a specific part of the back wall. The projection created an exact copy with a correct proportion, which an artist could just copy the image.
Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre designed the first commercially manufactured camera. It was named the Daguerreotype. It involved the coating of copper plates by mercury vapor. “The resultant plate was sensitized and exposed to produce a mirror like exact reproduction of the scene, usually a portrait.” It produced a single image, but it’s only problem was it was not reproducible. It required exposure times of 20-30 minutes.
Was an early photographic technique invented by William Fox Talbot in the 1830s. In this technique, a sheet of paper coated with silver chloride was exposed to light in a camera obsucura. Those areas hit by light became dark in tone, yielding a negative image. The revolutionary aspect of the process lay in Talbot’s discovery of a chemical, gallic acid that could be used to develop the image on the paper,. This accelerated the silver chloride’s chemical reaction to the light it had been exposed to. The developing process permitted much shorter exposure times instead of hours.
During 1888, Kodak released a camera that was simple to use. It was a wood and leather box that included a 100-explosure roll of film. In order to develop it, the customers would send the camera back to Kodak for processing. • In 1925, Leica invented many different features that are still standard. “Controls and a viewfinder were on top. The lens were focused by turning it, and it could collapse into the camera body for portability.
During 1948, Polaroid invented the instant film cameras. It became famous for it’s self-developing film. The earliest Polaroids used instant roll film, but it was discontinued. I went to photoworld exhibition in the World Trade centre and the polaroid is coming back as an iphone attachment.
During 1959, Nikon released the first widely used 35mm SLR camera. It contained interchangeable lenses and a reflex mirror that enabled the viewer to see the image coming through the lens.
Single-use Disposable Cameras
Kodak and Fujifilm invented the disposable in the mid-1980’s..Just like it’s name suggests, disposable cameras are only meant to be used once. It is a simple camera that already has a roll of film installed into it. Some have different functions such as focus free lenses, flash units, and or water proof. The cameras uses a 135 film and some models can be recycled and re-sold once the film cartridge has been removed.
In 1995, Kodak introduced the revolutionary digital camera to the general consumers. It changed picture-capturing forever since it captured an image electronically, without film. The image can be viewed on a small LCD screen, and than discarded or saved for printing. The cameras are rated by mega pixels. There are three types of digital cameras such as standard digital cameras, prosumer (professional-consumer) cameras, and digital single-lens reflex cameras.
Genius of photography by Gerry Badger.